By M Jones; F Moffatt
content material: part 1: review instruments part 2: Pathophysiology part three: Physiotherapy options and Adjuncts part four: Case reviews and Self-Assessment
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Additional info for Cardiopulmonary physiotherapy
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 29 • The central chemoreceptors are sited on the anterolateral surface of the medulla in the brainstem. These receptors are stimulated by a rise in PCO2, which produces an equal rise in CSF, cerebral tissue, and jugular venous PCO2. • Segmental and intersegmental reflexes at a spinal cord level may also affect breathing. • Baroreceptors, primarily associated with arterial blood pressure regulation can influence breathing pattern. A fall in BP leads to hyperventilation, while a rise in BP produces hypoventilation and ultimately apnea (Heymans & Neil 1958).
131). References and further reading Riedel M. (2001) Acute pulmonary embolism 1: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis. Heart 85(2): 229–240. Review. Riedel M. (2001) Acute pulmonary embolism 2: treatment. Heart 85(3): 351–360. Review. 0 kPa (30 mmHg) on exercise. Key physiological principles • Three mechanisms may lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension. g. secondary to mitral stenosis or left ventricular failure, will lead to pulmonary hypertension via backpressure across the pulmonary veins.
F. ACBT) • CHF patients may have increased symptoms when supine and often present with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. f. control of breathing). f. CPAP, NIPPV). PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 43 Related topics CPAP (p. 76); Exercise training—1 (p. 79); Exercise training in cardiac rehabilitation (p. 82); NIPPV (p. 118); Positioning to relieve breathlessness (p. 131). References and further reading Braunwald E. M. (1997) Evidence-based coronary care. Ann Intern Med 126(7): 551–553. C. H. (2000) ABC of heart failure: Pathophysiology.
Cardiopulmonary physiotherapy by M Jones; F Moffatt