By Otmar D. Wiestler (Editor), Bernhard Haendler (Editor), Dominik Mumberg (Editor)
Melanoma stem cells have initially been pointed out in leukemia and later in numerous strong tumor forms. they've got very diverse houses from the majority of the tumor as they divide even more slowly and feature very effective drug resistance mechanisms. present remedies may well mostly spare melanoma stem cells. This ebook seems at contemporary advancements within the box of melanoma stem cells and the prospective impression for the identity of novel remedy paradigms for melanoma.
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Melanoma stem cells have initially been pointed out in leukemia and later in numerous sturdy tumor forms. they've got very varied homes from the majority of the tumor as they divide even more slowly and feature very effective drug resistance mechanisms. present remedies may possibly principally spare melanoma stem cells.
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Additional info for Cancer Stem Cells: Novel Concepts and Prospects for Tumor Therapy (Ernst Schering Foundation Symposium Proceedings 06.5)
2004). B. M. 5 β-Catenin β-catenin plays key roles in the Wnt pathway, first by transmitting Wnt signals to the nucleus and second in tumorigenesis, through regulation of oncogenes (including cyclin D1 and c-myc) or by its own sporadic mutations. Overexpression of β-catenin has been reported in lung cancer. It has been reported that increased expression of β-catenin is associated with a high proliferative index, but paradoxically a favorable prognosis (Hommura et al. 2002). Supporting this, two studies reported independently that reduced expression of β-catenin might be associated with a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma (Retera et al.
Hh pathway activity was initially linked to cancer through identification of mutations in a negative regulator of the Hh receptor, Patched (Ptch) (Wechsler-Reya and Scott 2001; Taipale and Beachy 2001). Recent studies employing Hh-blocking antibodies and a specific Smoothened (Smo) inhibitor, cyclopamine, have demonstrated that Hh pathway activity, which requires ligand activation, is important in the growth of many lethal cancers including SCLC (Thayer et al. 2003; Berman et al. 2003; Watkins et al.
2001), gastric (To et al. 2001), and colorectal cancers (Suzuki et al. 2002; Suzuki et al. 2004; Caldwell et al. 2004). The role of Wnt antagonists in lung carcinogenesis has recently been described. WIF-1 was first identified from the human retina and is a highly conserved gene. Overexpression of WIF-1 in Xenopus embryos blocks the Wnt-8 pathway and induces abnormal somitogenesis (Hsieh et al. 1999). Recently, Wissman et al. reported the downregulation of WIF-1 in several cancer types including lung cancer by using a chip hybridization assay and immunohistochemistry (Wissmann et al.
Cancer Stem Cells: Novel Concepts and Prospects for Tumor Therapy (Ernst Schering Foundation Symposium Proceedings 06.5) by Otmar D. Wiestler (Editor), Bernhard Haendler (Editor), Dominik Mumberg (Editor)