By John Gribbin, Britannica
Who're crucial women and men whose notions and theories have replaced the area? whilst Isaac Newton claimed that he simply observed additional simply because he stood at the shoulders of giants, he alluded to the lengthy record of geniuses that got here ahead of him. The background of technology is the tale of significant discoveries, flashes of instinct that experience replaced the way in which humans see the realm, labor and hard calculation within the laboratory. The Britannica advisor to a hundred such a lot Influential Scientists is a party of the lives and paintings of the lads and ladies who've replaced the best way we glance on the international, the universe, and ourselves. comprises contributions from most sensible identify scientists and writers such James Gleick on Richard Feynman; Michio Kaky on Einstein and Sir Harold Kroton at the Fulleriene (for which he gained an Nobel Prize). The Britannica advisor to a hundred such a lot Influential Scientists is brought by way of John Gribbin. he's the writer of approximately a hundred renowned technological know-how books, together with the best-selling looking for SCHRODINGER'S CAT. He has got awards for his writing either within the usa and in Britain. The holder of a PhD in astrophysics from the collage of Cambridge, he nonetheless keeps hyperlinks with learn as a vacationing Fellow in Astronomy on the collage of Sussex, and was once a member of a staff there that measured the age of the Universe. whereas nonetheless a pupil, he acquired the distinguished Annual Award of the Gravity examine starting place within the usa, the single scholar, and the 1st Englishman operating in England, ever to obtain this award.
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Additional resources for Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Scientists (Britannica Guides)
In 168-9, however, he was called by the joint emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius to accompany them on a military campaign in northern Italy. After Verus's sudden death in 169 Galen returned to Rome, where he served Marcus Aurelius and the later emperors Commodus and Septimius Severus as a physician. Galen's final works were written after 207. Galen regarded anatomy as the foundation of medical knowledge, and he frequently dissected and experimented on such lower animals as the Barbary ape (or African monkey), pigs, sheep, and goats.
In addition, it formed the foundation for a geometric theory of numbers until an analytic theory developed in the late nineteenth century. Book VI applies this theory of ratios to plane geometry, mainly triangles and parallelograms, culminating in the "application of areas", a procedure for solving quadratic problems by geometric means. Books VII-IX contain elements of number theory, where number (arithmos) means positive integers greater than 1. Beginning with 22 new definitions - such as unity, even, odd, and prime - these books develop various properties of the positive integers.
130), only selectively introducing more current information, chiefly concerning the Asian and African coasts of the Indian Ocean. Nothing would be known about Marinus if Ptolemy had not preserved the substance of his cartographical work. Ptolemy's most important geographical innovation was to record longitudes and latitudes in degrees for roughly 8,000 locations on his world map, making it possible to make an exact duplicate of the map. Hence, we possess a clear and detailed image of the inhabited world as it was known to a resident of the Roman Empire at its height - a world that extended from the Shetland Islands in the north to the sources of the Nile in the south; from the Canary Islands in the west to China and South-east Asia in the east.
Britannica Guide to 100 Most Influential Scientists (Britannica Guides) by John Gribbin, Britannica