By P. Narayanasamy
Biological administration of illnesses of vegetation is encouraged by way of the character of interactions among the pathogens and different organisms and the vegetation. as a result of improvement of resistance in pathogens to fungicides and bactericides, decision of compatibility of biotic biocontrol brokers with chemical substances is vital for choosing lines of biocontrol brokers (BCAs) displaying resistance to chemical substances to successfully limit use of the chemical compounds. Microbial plant pathogens and the antagonists found in the soil and at the plant surfaces are prompted via numerous cultural practices. it truly is attainable to minimize affliction prevalence and depth through crop sanitation and utilizing acceptable rotational plants. software of actual options regarding using warmth, solarization and irradiation has capability to minimize the pathogen inhabitants or weaken the opportunity of pathogens found in the seed, planting fabrics and soil.
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Extra info for Biological Management of Diseases of Crops: Volume 2: Integration of Biological Control Strategies with Crop Disease Management Systems
1994). Organic mulches may introduce both beneficial and harmful microbes into the soil. Most of the isolates of actinomycetes isolated from organic mulch used in avocado plantations in western Australia were inhibitory to Phytophthora cinnamomi. But some isolates were harmful to plant growth also (You et al. 1996). Wood-based mulches (cellulose-rich) have been used in avocado production and these mulches were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing Phytophthora root rot disease caused by P. cinnamomi.
A differential effect of nitrogen form on pH was considered as a major mechanism of action for suppression of soilborne pathogens (Duffy and Défago 1999). Phosphate fertilization favors plant growth by promoting rapid root development. Enhancement of levels of resistance to diseases in crops receiving adequate phosphotic fertilizers has also been observed. Wheat take-all disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici was found to be favored by phosphorus deficiency. The onset and severity of the disease was appreciably reduced by repeated application of phosphates in the long-term field experiments at Rothamsted, England (Mattingly and Slope 1977).
2005). However, the possibility of using stubble and debris mulches, leading to higher level of incidence of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases has also been indicated by many investigations. Diseases such as wheat blotch (Septoria nodorum and S. tritici), barley leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis), maize stalk rot (Diplodia zeae and Gibberella zeae), bacterial wilt (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis) and sunflower leaf spot (Alternaria helianthii). Many viral and spiroplasmal diseases are spread by vectors that may acquire them from infected stubbles left in the field, due to adoption of no-tillage practice where stubbles of previous crop are left undisturbed.
Biological Management of Diseases of Crops: Volume 2: Integration of Biological Control Strategies with Crop Disease Management Systems by P. Narayanasamy