By Henry N. Houérou
Covering a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the equator and tropics, the African continent includes a staggering geographic variety. therefore, it really is characterized through super variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to quite a lot of common crops and natural world, in addition to human inhabitants density, plants and livestock.
In this booklet, Henry Le Houérou provides his bioclimatic and biogeographic category of Africa. The large info give you the foundation for comparisons among quite a few African areas, and with areas on different continents comparable to Latin the US or the Indian subcontinent. the consequences represent a rational foundation for nationwide, nearby and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural examine facing points akin to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of functions also are tested.
Henry Le Houérou (Montpellier, France)
For his massive contribution to the paintings of the Intergovernmental Panel on weather swap (IPCC), he used to be provided a proportion of the Nobel Peace Prize bestowed at the IPCC in 2007 (equally with Al Gore and others).
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Extra info for Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa
Candelabrum, E. tirucalli, E. robecchii, E. balsamifera subsp. adenensis), Dracaena schizantha (dragon tree), and a number of evergreens— Juniperus procera, Pistacia emarginata, Ceratonia aureothauma, Olea africana, Barbeya oleides, Buxus hildebrandtii, Sideroxylon buxifolium, S. , Euclea schimperi, Acokanthera schimperi, Cadia purpurea—and other evergreen Mediterranean-like sclerophyllous shrubs (Kassas 1956; Hemming 1966; Hassan 1974; Le Houérou 1984a, 1998a, 2003; Blot 1991). In Somalia, S. Yemen and Hadramaout, this mist belt is the exclusive habitat of Frankincense trees: Boswellia sacra = B.
35 ETo = 461 mm Elev. 5 °C ETo = 1,386 mm Rainy season = 210 days P/ETo = 52% f Oxbow (Lesotho) Hyper-humid subtropical montane agro-bioclimate, with very cold winters Lat. 28°43′S P = 1,281 mm 2t = 175 mm Rainy season = 365 days Long. 35 ETo = 266 mm P/ETo = 169% Elev. 9 °C ETo = 759 mm g Bloemfontein (South Africa) Semi-arid subtropical highland agro-bioc1imate with cold winters Lat. 29°07′S P = 552 mm 2t = 384 mm Long. 35 ETo = 481 mm Elev. 2 °C ETo = 1,374 mm h Cape Town (South Africa) Semi-arid agro-bioclimate with mild/warm winters Lat.
1998). In forested areas, atmospheric water condensation zones are characterized by the presence of epiphytes, in particular hanging lichens of the genera Usnea (U. , but also ferns and orchids, and American bromeliads such as the “Spanish moss” Tillandsia usneoides and T. recurvata. As it is difficult to extrapolate and generalize in this matter, I shall give below a few case studies from Africa and its offshore islands. Southern Africa has a number of fairly well-known case studies (Nagel 1956, 1959, 1961, 1962; Kerfoot 1968; Schulze and McGee 1978; Le Houérou 1998a; Mtuleni et al.
Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa by Henry N. Houérou