By Elizabeth Garber
This assortment makes a speciality of the highbrow improvement of the sciences, their relationships with expertise, and their position in tradition generally together with a proposed realignment of technology, know-how, and paintings.
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Extra resources for Beyond history of science: essays in honor of Robert E. Schofield
17. Histories of the development of theories and disciplines are necessarily convoluted. The participants are often not interested in the technical issues around which the theory or disciplines might eventually organize themselves. Such histories cannot be written from the perspective of the late twentieth century or from within. Yet such histories do have their uses; see Loren Graham et. , Functions and Uses of Disciplinary Histories, (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1983). 18. Sociologists seem particularly fond of picturing technology as "applied science," especially in the 1950s as they struggled to establish the sociology of science as an academic discipline against the opposition of mathematicians and physicists.
Rachel Laudan (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1984), and "Of Sealing Wax and String," Natural History 93 (1984): 49-56. 20. The seminal paper on this topic is Edwin T. , "Mirror Image Twins: The Communities of Science and Technology," Technology and Culture 12 (October 1971): 562-80. Recent discussions of the relationship between science and technology include George Wise, "Science and Technology," Osiris 1 (1985): 229-46, in which there is a survey of available historiography. Yakov M. Rabkin, "Technological Innovation in Science The Adoption of Infrared Spectroscopy by Chemists," Isis 78 (March 1987): 31-54, concludes that technology drove chemical research after World War II and that the intermediary for that impetus was industry.
19 Yet historians cannot continue to think in terms of the complete independence of either from the other. 20 Edwin Layton brings to light the very real difficulties of transforming scientific principles into engineering practice outside the support structure of formal educational institutions for engineers. Engineers and craftsmen had to connect the abstract ideas of Newton's physics to the design criteria and materials limitations. To do this they had first to understand the physical concepts and then transform them into the terms that brought out their engineering usefulness in the specific problem context of their immediate interest.
Beyond history of science: essays in honor of Robert E. Schofield by Elizabeth Garber