By M. Bourne
This e-book argues that the arming of clash is complexly based and hugely dynamic. It uncovers and describes the development and interplay of buildings and dynamics at worldwide and local degrees, which form the arming styles of either kingdom and non-state actors.
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Additional info for Arming Conflict: The Proliferation of Small Arms
However, r the way y in which these are assessed, and final decisions are made, vary y enormously even within those groups off suppliers that have begun to harmonise export control criteria. There are regional and supplier-group agreements that outline more harmonised criteria and processes for export authorisations. Attempts by groups of suppliers to harmonise export control criteria have enjoyed some success. These include multilateral supplier groups such as CoCom (The Co-ordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls) that was an effective means off controlling exports of weapons and sensitive technologies to the Soviet Union during the height off Cold War tensions, and its successor, the Wassenaar Arrangement, which has some 40 members.
These distinguish largely between which states might have the capacity to demand, acquire, and assimilate particular weapons. However, the range off types off recipient is particularly significant. The key distinction here is the availability y of weapons to non-state actors. For most types off weapons there is a clear barrier to spread across what can be referred to as the non-state threshold. The non-state threshold is constructed by y the utility of particular weapons for non-state actors, determined by y requirements associated with assimilation, maintenance, and use (see above); the legal frameworks that permit or deny y legal transfers to non-state actors; and, especially, y the capacity y of non-state actors to engage in trade or other transfer relationships with suppliers.
The choice off channels by a particular recipient is more complexly constructed. A recipient’s access to different suppliers and channels is determined by y a wide range of structures, dynamics, and capabilities. A primary y determinant of the structural elements off arms availability and the accessing off different channels is the legal framework and associated boundaries. Norms and policy structures The third type off structure that shapes the nature off weapons spread is the existence and nature off normative and policy structures.
Arming Conflict: The Proliferation of Small Arms by M. Bourne