New PDF release: An Introduction to Agricultural Systems

By C. R. W. Spedding (auth.)

ISBN-10: 9401164088

ISBN-13: 9789401164085

ISBN-10: 940116410X

ISBN-13: 9789401164108

It could were really easy to extend on the entire sections of the 1st version yet i made a decision to attempt to keep the rather brief, introductory nature of the ebook. a few new fabric has been extra, really the place it's been attainable to replace info, and there was a few switch of emphasis in areas, so that it will mirror altering international stipulations. The ebook keeps its unique objective, even if, of introducing structures considering as utilized to agriculture. i'm thankful to Angela Hoxey for assist in getting ready this version, particularly relating to the practise of tables and figures. C. R. W. SPEDDING v Preface to the 1st version the rural platforms of the area signify a truly huge topic. Their learn comprises loads of really targeted wisdom, in addition to a seize of the constructions and capabilities of the platforms themselves. This publication has been written as an creation to this type of research and it concentrates on an total view, instead of at the aspect, partially end result of the have to relate the latter to a couple better photograph so as to relish the relevance and value of the element. This problem-of seeing the relevance of part experiences and the importance of actual, organic and monetary element, and certainly principles-is encountered through many agricultural scholars correct first and foremost in their college careers.

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1. The battery hen is a good example, where the point is reached when anything that can be done for the bird is done for it and the bird itself does nothing that could be done for it. Thus feed and water are brought to it and faeces and eggs are removed as they are produced. Temperature, light and humidity are controlled, flies are killed, eggs are hatched and chicks reared under separate, controlled conditions. 1 EXAMPLES OF THE DISPLACEMENT OF BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN AGRICULTURE Biological process displaced Incubation of eggs by hen bird Natural service by male animal Collection of feed by animal Grazing Non-biological process substituted Electrically heated incubator Artificial insemination Automated provision of processed feed 'Zero-grazing' (cutting and carting of herbage) Deposition of excreta on the land Collection of excreta from housed animals -+ disposal, treatment, spreading on land Natural control of pests and weeds Use of pesticides and herbicides Natural immunity to disease in animals Use of vaccines Control of light, daylength and Natural hormonal processes temperature; use of synthetic hormones Fixation of atmospheric N by bacteria Manufacture and application of artificial nitrogenous fertilisers Application of artificial fertilisers Recycling of phosphorus and potash; extraction from soil by deep rooting plants Water uptake by deep roots Irrigation Natural suckling (of lambs and calves) Artificial rearing on milk substitutes 54 AN INTRODUCTION TO AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS even within this there may be supplemental hormones introduced.

If the answer is not satisfactory, however, it is important to know what can be done about it. There are, of course, two ways of improving a ratio: one is to increase the numerator at the top and the other is to decrease the denominator. But this does not tell one how to do either or what the consequences might be. A simple expansion of such ratios (see Fig. 4) indicates the main factors contributing to the ratio and the fact that the top and bottom parts of the ratio are not independent. Thus, although the efficiency of feed conversion by animals is extremely important (where the ratio is output per unit of feed consumed), it cannot necessarily be improved by reducing the amount fed.

Pests Wat~ rasites 1M~kJ"" By-products FIG. 16 Fertiliser The 'better' cow in the same environment as that of Fig. 15 with an indication of the milk yield it may be capable of if it survives. ). 16, for the substitution of a 'better' cow in a small-scale, milk production system. The 'better' cow may be genetically capable of greater milk production but, under the conditions of feed supply and environment in which it has to perform, it may actually produce less milk. This is quite possible if, as is likely, the animal is larger, with a greater maintenance requirement, and has to live on the same quantity and quality of feed.

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An Introduction to Agricultural Systems by C. R. W. Spedding (auth.)

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