Download e-book for iPad: Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in by Robin W. Bates

By Robin W. Bates

ISBN-10: 0821327534

ISBN-13: 9780821327531

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With this notation, the following energy quantities can be defined: Eimkj= total amount of energy type i used by technology m for activity k in sector j 7 Additional discussion of the model can be found in Cofala (1985) and Cofala et al (1990). Page 15 Eij = total sector j demand for energy type Ei = aggregate demand for energy type i Ej = total energy demand in sector j Note that a time subscript has been suppressed in this formulation. In practice, all the components of final energy use will vary over time.

This study examines the cost of achieving alternative emission standards and the savings in abatement cost that might be achieved with policies that rely on economic incentives rather than with rigid command and control measures. The focus is primarily on three pollutants arising from energy combustionparticulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulphur dioxide (SOx)although carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions also are tracked. A central element of the analysis is a dynamic model of least-cost energy supply in Poland that allows examination at a national level of the effects of different pollution standards and policies.

PJ of coal, gas, or electricity per PJ total energy input). Another example can be given in terms of transport, where the Akj represent different levels of transport activities, the Tmkj represent different vehicle types or modes, and the Fmkj represent fuel efficiencies. With this notation, the following energy quantities can be defined: Eimkj= total amount of energy type i used by technology m for activity k in sector j 7 Additional discussion of the model can be found in Cofala (1985) and Cofala et al (1990).

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Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland by Robin W. Bates


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