By C. W. Rose, W. Ashhurst and H. T. Flint (Auth.)
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Additional info for Agricultural Physics
1) This describes the energy input (during daytime) or output (during hours of darkness) as the resultant of all the radiative fluxes to and from the ground surface. Figure 10 gives a typical record of the variation of net and global radiation during a day and a night. At night, with no incoming short-wave radiation, RN is negative, being equal to the ever-present net long-wave radiation from the ground RL- At night, RN is considerably less in magnitude than clear-sky day-time values—which can be of the order of 1 kW m~2.
Any instant can be regarded as the sum of a mean velocity u and a fluctuation or eddy velocity u' such that the mean value of u' over some specified time interval is zero. Any flow in the atmosphere near the ground, with the possible exception of short periods with very calm conditions at night, is characteristically turbulent. This fact dominates the spatial distribution of wind speed, water vapour and temperature, and together with the energy and water balances, controls the magnitudes of the fluxes of momentum, water vapour and heat.
Two such instruments can be used to measure net outgoing radiation RL (Funk<21>). Tanner^22) has described in considerable detail the various types of radiation measuring instruments, the principles of their operation and methods of calibration. (23> and Funk<24>. 3. Conservation Principles for Heat Energy and Water The amount and distribution of water as liquid, vapour or solid, and the manner in which the heat energy from the sun is distributed, together have dominance in controlling the day-time microclimate.
Agricultural Physics by C. W. Rose, W. Ashhurst and H. T. Flint (Auth.)