By Melvin A. Conant
Conant explores how the transformation of oil from a advertisement commodity to a strategic uncooked fabric have replaced the face of worldwide power politics. In an more and more interdependent global, Conant questions the perfect of any country to withold important offers from different international locations.
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Extra resources for Access to Energy. 2000 and After
THE CONCESSIONS Access to oil was expressed through a general system of concession arrangements, backed by the home governments of the companies, a support that was essential to the creation and durability of the oil system. Although each concessionary arrangement varied somewhat from the others, in general a typical concessionary arrangement often included payment by the companies to the producing government which was repaid to the companies when production commenced; a nominal rent for the designated area; and a fixed royalty payment on the oil produced.
The period from 1910 to 1920 was also an era of great unrest as the Mexican people, frustrated by a political, social, and economic structure that had changed little in 350 years, moved to assert their rights to a better life. In 1910 a revolution against Porfirio Diaz, dictator for the previous thirty years, unleashed ten years of civil war. Nonetheless, on May 1,1917, a new constitution was promul- 36 / Access to Energy gated which embodied into law the sweeping reforms that had been the result of social upheaval.
During this period, however, BP was confronted by a political crisis of growing proportions. When the war ended in 1945, Iran was in an extremely difficult political bind. In the north the country was occupied by Soviet forces, while in the south the British government moved to reinforce its privileged position. This situation was greatly complicated by the United States, which had propelled itself into Iranian affairs in order to move wartime supplies through Iran to the Soviet Union. The political milieu was further complicated by the close relationships between BP and the British government; BP was perceived by a growing number of Iranian nationalists as the commercial arm of British imperialism.
Access to Energy. 2000 and After by Melvin A. Conant