By Edward L. Raab, MD, JD
Examines the medical positive factors, prognosis and remedy of esodeviations and exodeviations, horizontal and vertical deviations, amblyopia and distinct types of strabismus. Discusses the whole diversity of pediatric ocular problems, extraocular muscle anatomy, motor and sensory body structure and the way to set up rapport with young ones in the course of an ocular exam. comprises a number of photographs, together with colour pictures. lately revised 2010 2011.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 6: Pediatric Ophthalomology and Strabismus (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Under normal viewing circumstances, however, the eyes move only about 15°_20° from primary posit ion before head movement occurs. Horizontal Rectus Muscles The hori zontal rectus muscles are the medial and lateral rectus muscles. Both arise from the annulus of ZinnoThe medial rectLis muscle courses along the medi al orbital wall. The proximity of the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall means the medial rectus can be injured du ring ethmoid sin us surge ry. T he lateral rectus muscle courses alo ng the lateral orbital wall.
Because the oblique muscles are inclined 51 0 to the visual axis, to rsion is their primary action. Vertical rotation is their secondary and horizontal rotation their tertiary action (Table 3-1). Field of action The term field of action has been used in 2 ways to describe entirely separate and distinct concepts: to indicate the direction of rotation of the eye from primary position if the muscle was the only one to contract to refer to the gaze position (one of the cardinal positions) in which the effect of the muscle is most readily observed For the lateral rectus muscle, the direction of rotation and the gaze position are both ab~ duction; for the medial rectus, they are both adduction.
Is the diplopia worse on looki ng to the left or to the right? Patient's answer: Looking to the left [the field of action of the left lateral rectus]. Table 3· ' Action of the Extraocular Muscles from Primary Position Muscle* Primary Secondary Tertiary Medial rectus Lateral rectus Inferior rectus Superior rectus Inferior oblique Superior oblique Adduction Abduction Depression Elevation Extorsion Intorsion Extorsion Intorsion Elevation Depression Adduction Adduction Abduction Abduction * The superior muscles are intortors; the inferior muscles, extortors.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 6: Pediatric Ophthalomology and Strabismus (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by Edward L. Raab, MD, JD