By Carl D. Regillo MD
Experiences the fundamental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic ways to retinal illness. contains vast examinations of issues of the retina and vitreous, together with disorder, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser remedy and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Although teratogenic effects have not been identifie d, m any ophthalmologists try to avoid FA in pregnant women in the first trimester unless absolutely necessary. Also of note, fl uorescein is transmitted to breast milk in lactating wo men. Lower doses of fluorescein should be used in patients with renal comprom ise. Berkow JW, Flower R\·V, Orth DH, Kelley JS. Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography: Technique and Interpretation . 2nd ed. Ophthal mology Monograph s. San Francisco: Ameri can Academy of Ophthalmology; 1997.
The resulting waveform has a prominent b-wave bu t almost no detectable a-wave . A larger wave- form (maximal combined response) is generated by using a bright flash in the dark-adapted state, which max imally stimulates both cones and rods and results in large a- and b-wave amplitudes with oscillatory potentials superi mposed on the ascending b-wave. The oscillatory potentials can be isolated by filtering out the slower ERG components. Oscillatory potentials are believed to be the result of feedb ack interactions among the integrative cells of the proximal retina.
CHAPTER 2 Diagnostic Approach to Retinal Disease Techniques of Examination Diagnosing retinal disease requires a combination of careful clinical examination and specialized imaging techniques. The macula can be examined without pupillary dilation, but, to perform a complete retinal examination, the pupil should be fully dilated. 5% phenylephrine, and 1% cyclopentalate. In general, longer-acting dilating agents are not required. The simplest examination technique is using th e direct ophthalmoscope, which provides an upright, monocular, high-magnification (l5x) image of the retina.
2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course) by Carl D. Regillo MD